Anabolic-androgenic steroids are known as male hormones. The most important of these hormones is testosterone.
Testosterone is produced in the male testes (testicles). Is synthesized from cholesterol. Simplified principle of the regulation can be described as follows:
When testosterone levels fall below a given point (which is different for each individual) will diencephalon (HPA) secrete GnRH (gonadotrophin hormone Raeleasing). The action of the anterior pituitary gland (pineal gland) increases the production of LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone). In men, LH stimulates the Leydig cells in the testes and stimulates the production of androgen hormones, ie. testosterone. FSH, together with testosterone stimulates the Sertoli cells in the testes that encourages the production and maturation of sperm. Sperm to properly matured, need to "swim" in testosterone.
Needless to talk about where "it" the most testosterone. The remaining testosterone is released into the bloodstream, where it absorbs 97-99% of the liver. The remaining percentage of free entry into the genital organs, but mainly in muscle cells, which under certain circumstances can promote muscle growth.
At this point already testosterone levels high and runs on the reverse process. Testosterone acts on the hypothalamus and suppresses the production of GnRH. Occurs also transform parts of testosterone to estrogen (female sex hormones). This feedback is used to maintain and regulate the levels of testosterone in the body.
This mechanism of action is called. the hypothalamic - pituitary - testes. For men aged 20-50 years is naturally produced on average 7 mg of testosterone per day. The amount of LH and FSH production is always the same, their relationships correlate with each other. Only a small portion of testosterone production causes muscle growth. Organism is programmed so that the sperm production is much more important than the increase in muscle, i.e. spermatogenesis is a priority. This process is repeated every 1-3 hours.
Effect of testosterone on the body:
- supports protein metabolism and at the same time limiting their catabolism
- stimulates the growth of target organs
- stimulates spermatogenesis
- contributes to male sexual characteristics (puberty supports the enlargement of the larynx and vocal amplification, supports typical body hair growth, increased secretion of sebaceous glands, increases muscle mass)
- is closely related to the mental state of sexual desire, libido and aggression
- has anabolic effects on muscle, bone and skin
- closed epiphysis of long bones
- affects the size of the seminiferous tubules and testicular
- affects the psychological perception of reality and perspectives, particularly in relation to the vision of the body identity and personality
In medical practice, the testosterone applied in a situation where the formation of abnormally low hormone patients. Also is indicated in the treatment of breast cancer in women. In large doses, it can have a positive impact on some life-threatening blood diseases. During puberty promotes growth in height and at the same time causing the development of male features of the (growth of body hair, voice, testicles, penis, skeletal muscles ...).